The Working Principles Of LED Lights
9 mins read

The Working Principles Of LED Lights

An LED’s operation was explained to me today. Simply put, a Light Emitting Diode (LED) is a kind of diode engineered to emit light when electrical current flows through it. This light can be either visible or infrared in color. There are numerous applications for diodes, a subset of semiconductors. The ability to regulate the current in an electrical circuit is one of its primary applications, though. This is accomplished by the most prevalent kind of diode through the use of p-n junctions. This is merely a euphemism for magic.

Though, to put it simply, picture a Dr. Pepper can with the top half cut off. On one side, you have a semiconducting material with an excess of electrons and negatively charged carriers created by adding impurities to it. An n-type semiconductor is the name given to this side. In the other half, you’ve done the same thing, but you’ve added impurities that have positively charged carriers—imagine a bunch of holes that electrons need to fill. This side is referred to as a p-type semiconductor.

Thus, we have a pair of semiconductors, one of which is an n-type and the other a p-type. The p-n junction is the point where these two types of connections meet. Everything magical takes place here. It turns out that regular current can flow in either direction, but it dislikes flowing counterclockwise.

Among many other things, you can use this to direct the flow of electricity in your circuit in the direction you specify. Diodes are incredibly versatile and have many applications; I won’t cover all of them here, but I will certainly return to this topic in the future. These p-n junctions are fundamental to the vast majority of electrical devices that use semiconductors. What changes are made to these diodes so that they can emit light? To make light radiation, it turns out they truly don’t require any modifications at all. But most of the time, the materials used to make ordinary diodes absorb the light radiation that is emitted, and what’s more essential is that they don’t usually emit light that can be seen by humans anyhow.

As current flows across the p-n junction, electrons from the n-type side fill up the p-type side’s holes. The final result is a change in the electrons’ state. A photon is released when this state changes. The specifics of the situation are that different electrons in different orbits around an atom’s nucleus have varying energies. The energy of an electron increases as its orbital distance from the nucleus decreases.

A Change in Orbit Requires an Electron to Either Gain or Lose Energy

In light-emitting diodes (LEDs), the process of electrons losing energy as they fall from an orbit to a lower one is of interest. Light photons are a sort of energy loss experienced by the n-type electrons as they fill the p-type side’s holes. The hue is changed as the energy released increases because the light photons are given off at higher frequencies.

The light that the LED emits will be visible to the human eye if the frequency falls inside the visible spectrum. In other cases, such as when emitted in the infrared spectrum, it will go undetected. Although infrared LEDs are most commonly found in television remote controls, they can still have practical applications, such as letting you change the station on your TV. You won’t see the light when you push a button on the remote, but your TV receiver will be able to read it and understand what it means. Consequently, the material and current used to create light in LEDs are critical factors. In a typical diode, the arrangement of atoms produces light with an infrared spectrum, which is invisible to human sight because the energy loss experienced by an electron is so small.

LED Facts

  1. LEDs and Radio Signals: LEDs can interfere with radio frequencies. The switching frequency of LED drivers can occasionally generate radio frequency interference, affecting radio reception in close proximity.
  2. Longevity and Lifespan: LED lights can last exceptionally long. While commonly known for their durability, some high-quality LEDs can endure up to 100,000 hours of use, significantly surpassing traditional lighting options.
  3. No Ultraviolet Emissions: Unlike traditional lighting, LEDs produce no ultraviolet (UV) rays in their light emissions, making them safer for sensitive materials and reducing potential damage to items sensitive to UV exposure.
  4. Temperature Sensitivity: LED lights are sensitive to temperature variations. Extreme heat can reduce their lifespan, while cooler temperatures might affect their brightness and efficiency.
  5. LED Color Rendering: LEDs offer varying color-rendering capabilities. They have different Color Rendering Index (CRI) ratings, indicating how accurately they display colors compared to natural light. High CRI LEDs render colors more accurately.
  6. LEDs and Humidity: Some LED lights are designed to operate in damp or humid conditions. Waterproof and moisture-resistant LEDs are available, suitable for outdoor and high-humidity indoor environments.
  7. Directional Light Emission: LEDs emit light directionally. Unlike traditional bulbs that radiate light in all directions, LEDs have a directional light output, making them ideal for task lighting and spotlights.
  8. LED Efficiency Over Time: LED lights retain their efficiency as they age. Unlike traditional bulbs that gradually lose efficiency, LEDs maintain their brightness and efficacy throughout their lifespan.
  9. LEDs in Medical Applications: LED technology is used in various medical applications, including phototherapy for skin treatments, dental curing lights, and surgical lighting due to their precision and low heat emission.
  10. LEDs in Communication: Beyond illumination, LEDs are used for communication. Infrared LEDs are employed in remote controls, fiber-optic communication systems, and even in Li-Fi technology that uses light for wireless data transmission.

Energy Efficiency Of LED Lights

LEDs are highly energy-efficient compared to traditional lighting sources. They consume significantly less electricity to produce the same amount of light, leading to reduced energy consumption and lower greenhouse gas emissions associated with electricity generation.

The long lifespan of LEDs contributes to sustainability. Their extended life reduces the frequency of replacements, minimizing waste disposal and resource consumption. Moreover, their durability lowers the overall environmental impact by reducing the need for frequent manufacturing and transportation. LEDs contain various materials, including semiconductor chips, circuit boards, and rare-earth elements like gallium, indium, and phosphorus. While these materials make LEDs highly efficient, their extraction and refining processes can have environmental impacts, including habitat disruption and energy-intensive extraction methods.

Some LED lights contain toxic materials such as lead and mercury, albeit in smaller quantities compared to traditional lighting like fluorescent tubes. If not properly disposed of, these substances can pose environmental hazards if they leach into soil or waterways.

LED manufacturing involves energy-intensive processes, especially during the creation of semiconductor chips. The manufacturing of LEDs requires sophisticated technology, which consumes resources and produces emissions, contributing to the environmental footprint. While LEDs are generally more recyclable than traditional bulbs, the recycling infrastructure for LED components is not universally established. Proper disposal and recycling mechanisms are crucial to prevent environmental contamination and make the most of LED materials.

LEDs can contribute to light pollution due to their brightness and color temperature. This can disrupt ecosystems, affecting wildlife behavior and migration patterns, as well as human health and natural landscapes.

Sustainability Efforts

Efforts are underway to improve the sustainability of LED technology. Manufacturers are exploring more eco-friendly materials, enhancing recycling programs, and improving production processes to reduce environmental impacts.Despite the challenges and environmental concerns in manufacturing and  material composition, LED lighting is generally considered more sustainable due to its energy efficiency, durability, and potential for reduced waste. Continued innovation and sustainable practices in manufacturing and disposal can further enhance LED sustainability.

Consumer awareness and responsible disposal play a crucial role in the sustainability of LED lighting. Proper disposal methods, choosing eco-friendly options, and supporting recycling initiatives can collectively contribute to minimizing the environmental impact of LED lighting.

So, to put it simply, visible light-emitting diode (LED) lights are composed of semiconductor materials that produce a larger decrease in electron orbital frequency, allowing the photon packet to be visible to the human eye. You can even have a multi-color LED by designing them such that the quantity of current passing through them changes the drop.